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Rashid ed. Keay and S. Rashed ed. But states such as Adamawa now insist that judges of upper area courts are legal practitioners.

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But s. Adesobukan NNLR It uses "decision or order" of the lower courts and the inclusion of criminal matters is strengthened by s. But the practice now, sanctioned by the various High Court Civil Procedure Rules, is to have two High Court judges in the appellate court. The Court is not permanent. It is constituted as and when due. Muhammadu, The Nigeria Constitution. Hassan Abuja v. This case went through the Shari'a Court of Appeal despite the fact that title over a property is not included in Islamic personal law in which the Court can exercise jurisdiction.

Religious and Customary Laws in Nigeria |

But an earlier case, Abuja v. Usman ro. Increasingly, trans-Saharan trade came to be conducted by Muslims. In the second half of the eighteenth century a Muslim revival took place in western Africa, in which Fulani cattle-driving people, who had settled and adopted Islam, played a central role. In northern Nigeria, the Fulani scholar Uthman dan Fodio launched a jihad in that lasted for six years, aiming to revive and purify Islam, to eliminate syncretist beliefs and rituals, to remove all innovations contrary to the Koran and sharia, and to encourage less devout Muslims to return to orthodox and pure Islam.

A History of the Application of Islamic Law in Nigeria

However, this religious revolution also had a political element concerning state formation and state conflict. It united the Hausa states under sharia law. The Sokoto Caliphate ended with partition in when the British incorporated it into the colony of Nigeria and the Sultan's power was transferred to the High Commissioner. However, many aspects of the caliphate structure, including the Islamic legal system, were retained and brought forward into the colonial period.

II. The Problematic Nature of Classifying Laws as “Religious” and “Customary”

A new impetus to the spread of Islam was provided by Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the Northern Region after Nigerian independence in , with his Islamization programme that led to the conversion of over , people in the provinces of Zaria and Niger. The military coup in , which claimed the lives of many politicians including Ahmadu Bello, brought his Islamization programme to an abrupt end but the s saw continued government policy favouring the dominance of Islam. History has shown that Islamization was easier under military dictatorship and Islam spread quickly under Ibrahim Babangida Religious tensions between Evangelical Christians and Islamic groups have long existed, but the anticipated extension of sharia law in a number of northern states has caused increased religious tension since December For example, in Ilorin, Kwara State, fourteen churches were burnt to the ground by suspected Islamic fundamentalists.

A second state, Kano State, adopted Islamic law in June and in , a further ten northern states followed suit. Though the Nigerian central government has openly recognized the incompatibility of sharia law with the federal constitution of the nation, President Olusegun Obasanjo has avoided intervening in decisions taken by states that apply Islamic law, merely calling for moderation.

As an outspoken born-again Christian, he knows that vigorous condemnation of strict Islamic law will only inflame passions further and at the same time he fears that the spread of sharia law will increase religious tension and undermine Nigerian unity. In: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs: , vol. Islamische Bildung und soziale Integration in Ilorin Nigeria seit ca.

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ISBN ISBN X. In: Orita: , vol. In: African Languages and Cultures: , vol. Met bijl. In: African Notes: , vol. In: The Journal of African History: , vol. In: Afrika Zamani: , no. Ibadan history series Bibliography: p. African studies seminar paper ; no. In: Kano Studies: , vol.

What Is Sharia Law?

Ibadan history series Oorspr. Lewis: , p. In: Africana Bulletin: , no. The impact of the Sokoto jihad on the Kurama people of eastern Zazzau c. In: Afrika und Uebersee: , vol.

Islamic law advances in Nigeria

George Amale Kwanashie ISBN x. Yadudu ; M. Kukah, , chapters ; S. Olesanmi ; T. Falola ; P. Ostien Oloyede ; M. Oduyoye ; C. Nzeh ; A. Nouhou ; M. Brunner ; O. Kalu, ; J.

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